2018 年 3 月普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(天津卷)
第二部分：阅读理解(共 20 小题;每小题 2.5 分，满分 50 分)
阅读下列短文，从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出最 佳选项。
When you choose a higher education course, here are some tips for you to follow.
Choosing your course
There are a range of subjects and courses available. Many are work-related; others are academic. You’ll need to look beyond the course title because courses with almost the same name may differ enormously. For example, if you’re interested in construction but wish to use your creative skills, you may be better suited to a building design management course than a building project management course.
Style of learning
Think about the style of learning that best suits you. It’s important to study a subject that you particularly enjoy, but if you want to follow a career in a different area, you may consider taking the subjects you want to learn and joining them into one degree. Many degree courses are made up of different subject modules which deal with particular areas of interest.
Choosing where to study
Where you study can be almost as important as what you study. One thing to consider is whether you want to live at home or move away. For some people, living at home offers the best of both worlds, but it may make sense to move if you want to study a particular course at a specific university or college. Many students value the experience of living on
campus or in a different part of the country as an important part of university life.
Finding out more about courses
Once you’ve got a list of courses that appeal to you, it’s worth looking at some other sources of information about them, like independent reports. These provide information on the numbers of students who finished the course, student satisfaction and more.
Open days usually take place in spring or autumn. Although you may have an idea about what a course is like, there’s no substitute( 替 代 )for attending a class yourself. If you can’t come on the open days, you can sign up for a guided tour instead.
36.You need to look beyond the course title because courses with similar names may be .
A.creativity-focused B.work-related C.far different D.quite similar
37.What are you advised to do if your interest disagrees with your future career?
A.Add preferred subjects to your degree courses. B.Choose the subjects based on your interest.
C.Earn different degrees. D.Give up your interest.
38.What do we learn about from Para. 4?
A.Disadvantages of studying on campus. B.Reasons for choosing where to study. C.Importance of attending a nearby college. D.Problems of going to a faraway university.
39.Why is it recommended to check independent reports?
A.To increase applicants’ interest. B.To better understand a course.
C.To figure out how to complete a course. D.To find out how different the courses are.
40.On the open days, would-be college students can .
A.sign up for a particular course B.take a guided tour on the campus C.see whether there is a substitute course
D.have a first-hand experience of a course
With a satisfied smile, Keisha finished the last sentence of her English essay about one of her heroes, Rosa Parks, an important figure in the Civil Rights Movement.
“Keisha,” her mother shouted from downstairs. “It’s almost 4:15.”
“Don’t worry. I won’t be late. ” Keisha pulled down a storybook from her bookshelf， as she always read to the nursing home’s residents. And on an impulse(一时心血来潮),
she added her English notebook as well.
As Keisha came running in the door, the manager told her, “We have a new resident this week, Mrs. Ruby Watson. She’s still adjusting to her new surroundings. You’ll find her in Room 28. And by the way, Keisha, good luck.”
Keisha walked down the hallway at a quick pace. As she entered Room 28, she met two sharp brown eyes staring at her doubtfully.
“I’m Keisha Jackson, a volunteer,” Keisha explained. “I come here to help pass the time with residents, or read to them, or, . . .” Keisha started stammering( 结 巴 )as Mrs. Watson continued to stare at her.
“I didn’t request anyone to keep me company,” Mrs. Watson interrupted. “I’m alone most of the time, and that’s how I prefer it.”
“I brought along some funny stories,” Keisha said hesitantly.
“I’m not in the mood for funny stories,” Mrs. Watson replied angrily. “What else do you have?”
Nervously, Keisha opened her notebook to her essay. She read the title aloud, “Rosa Parks: A Woman of Courage and Conviction(信念).” She glanced at Mrs. Watson to see
how she might react, but to her surprise, Mrs. Watson’s face relaxed and her eyes shone. “Read to me about Rosa,” Mrs. Watson said.
Keisha read how Rosa Parks’ refusal to give up her seat to a white passenger on a bus in 1955 inspired the protest that became a turning point in the struggle for civil rights.
“I walked with Rosa Parks and Dr. Martin Luther King,” Mrs. Watson said with pride. “That was the greatest moment of my life because…” She paused.
“Because… you were a woman of courage and conviction too.”
Sitting up straighter, Mrs. Watson said, “Yes, I was and I still am. Thank you for reminding me, Keisha. Next Thursday, I will tell you my story.”
41.Why did Keisha take her English notebook along?
A.Her mother asked her to take it. B.She would hand it in on her way. C.She might read her essay to someone. D.The manager wanted to read her essay.
42.Why did the manager wish Keisha good luck before she visited Mrs. Watson?
A.Mrs. Watson could be difficult. B.Mrs. Watson was in poor health. C.Keisha was feeling nervous.
D.Keisha was a shy person.
43.Mrs. Watson’s eyes (Para. 10) suggested that she was .
A.amused B.puzzled C.annoyed D.interested
44.What effect did Keisha’s essay have on Mrs. Watson?
A.It aroused her curiosity in volunteer work. B.It built up her expectation for more visitors.
C.It awoke her pride in her struggle for civil rights. D.It changed her attitude to the Civil Rights Movement.
45.Readers may find this story inspiring because .
A.a girl enjoys learning about her heroes B.a girl helps someone feel appreciated C.a woman overcomes hardship by herself D.a woman gathers the courage for life
If you were bringing friends home to visit, you could show them the way. You know the landmarks—a big red house or a bus-stop sign. But what if you were swimming in the
middle of the Atlantic Ocean? Could you still find your way home? A loggerhead turtle(海龟)could.
According to Dr. Ken Lohmann, loggerheads have a magnetic(磁力的)sense based
on Earth’s magnetic field. It helps them locate the best spots for finding food and their
Scientists already know that several other animals, such as whales and honeybees, can
detect(探测到)magnetic fields. The difference between them and loggerheads, however, is the way they learn to use their magnetic sense. Young whales and honeybees can learn
from adults. Loggerheads are abandoned as eggs.
As newborn loggerheads have no adults to learn from, what helps them figure out how to use their magnetic sense? Lohmann thinks one of the cues was light on the sea.
Baby loggerheads hatch only at night. However, a small amount of light reflects off the ocean. The light makes that region brighter. Heading toward the light helps them get quickly out to sea, where they can find food. Lohmann tested whether newborn
loggerheads use this light source to set their magnetic “compasses”( 罗 盘 ). He and his
team put some newborns in a water tank and recorded which way they swam. Around the
tank, the scientists created a magnetic field that matched the Earth’s. They set a weak light to the east of the magnetic field. Then they let the newborns go.
At first, the newborns swam toward the light. After the scientists turned off the light, the turtles that had seen the light in the east always swam toward east. When the
researchers reversed(颠倒)the magnetic field, these turtles turned around and swam
toward the new “east”.
This and the follow-up experiments all showed that loggerheads use light from the outside world to set their magnetic “compasses” and then remember the “correct” direction. If a turtle hatches on a brightly-lit beach, that would damage its magnetic sense forever and make survival hard for the turtle.
Lohmann’s work has led others to protect the habitat of this endangered species. Yet many questions about these creatures remain unanswered, and researchers have a lot to study.
46.Loggerheads and whales differ in the way they .
A.bring up their young B.recognize landmarks C.detect magnetic fields D.learn to find directions
47.What is needed for newborn loggerheads to set their magnetic sense?
A.Weak light reflected off the ocean. B.Help from adult loggerheads.
C.Bright sunlight from the sky. D.Food in warmer waters.
48.In the experiment, after the newborns’ magnetic sense was set, their moving direction
was determined by . A.the light
B.the magnetic field
C.other unknown factors
D.the light and the magnetic field
49.What is the significance of Lohmann’s research work?
A.It enables researchers to keep track of turtles. B.It contributes to the studies of the magnetic field. C.It offers a new solution to environmental pollution.
D.It helps protect the loggerheads’ living environment.
50.What could be the best title of the passage?
A.Experiments on Loggerheads B.The Survival of the Sea Turtle
C.The Loggerhead’s Built-in “Compass” D.Comparison of Loggerheads and Other Animals
Most people aren’t good at creative problem solving for two reasons: (1) They are not trained in how to be creative. (2) They don’t understand group strength well enough to
harness(驾驭)their power to maximize group creativity.
A key element of creativity is applying existing knowledge to a new problem. The
more people getting involved in solving it, the more knowledge there is to work on it. Unfortunately, research shows that the traditional brainstorming methods fail to achieve that goal. When groups get together to exchange ideas, they actually come up with fewer ideas overall than if they each had worked alone.
To fix this problem, you should consider the two stages of group problem-solving:
divergence(分散)and convergence(集中). Divergence happens when the group considers as many different potential solutions as possible. Convergence happens when the various
proposed solutions are evaluated and reduced to a smaller set of candidate solutions to the current problem.
The essential principle of group creativity is that individuals working alone diverge, whereas group members working together converge. In groups, once a member states a potential solution, that makes others think about the problem similarly. That is why groups working together diverge less than individuals working alone.
Therefore, be aware of when to diverge and when to converge. For example, early in the problem-solving process, have group members work alone to write down statements describing the problem. Then get them back to discuss their descriptions. The group discussion will lead everyone to accept one or a small number of these statements to work on—this is healthy convergence.
When starting to generate solutions, you again want divergence. Have people work alone to start. Then collect people’s initial ideas and send them around to others and allow the divergence to continue as everyone individually builds on the ideas of other members.
Finally, let the group discuss the resulting ideas. This discussion will gradually lead the group to converge on a small number of candidate solutions.
This simple method works effectively, because it respects what individuals and groups do best.
51.Research shows that the traditional brainstorming methods .
A.actually limit group creativity B.greatly encourage group creativity
C.enable people to form more ideas together D.prevent people’s involvement in the problems
52.According to Para. 4, when a member presents an idea, others tend to .
A.think the other way round B.follow his way of thinking
C.be more confident in their own ideas D.be less willing to share their own ideas
53.What should group members first do early in the problem-solving process?
A.Discuss the problem. B.Simplify the problem.
C.Put down group statements together. D.Write down their individual descriptions.
54.How can each group member make changes to his initial solution?
A.By adding in collected evidence. B.By reorganizing his own words. C.By drawing on others’ ideas.
D.By making his statement briefer.
55.What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?
A.To advocate a way to make group thinking more effective. B.To demonstrate the difficulty in organizing group thinking.
C.To highlight the differences between divergence and convergence. D.To show the advantage of group thinking over individual thinking.
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